The AREPO code is a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation code on a fully dynamic unstructured mesh. At present, hydrodynamic cosmological simulations usually employ either the Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique, or Eulerian hydrodynamics on a Cartesian mesh with (optional) adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Both of these methods have disadvantages that negatively impact their accuracy in certain situations, for example the suppression of fluid instabilities in the case of SPH, and the lack of Galilean-invariance, the presence of overmixing and preferred directions in the case of AMR. This makes it highly desirable to develop novel numerical schemes that are more accurate in the demanding regime relevant for cosmic structure formation. Here, large advection velocities and supersonic flows are the norm, the density contrast is highly time-variable and reaches extreme values.
In the publication
we have proposed a novel scheme which largely eliminates these weaknesses. It is based on a moving unstructured mesh defined by the Voronoi tessellation of a set of discrete points. The mesh is used to solve the hyperbolic conservation laws of ideal hydrodynamics with a finite volume approach, based on a second-order unsplit Godunov scheme with an exact Riemann solver. The mesh-generating points can in principle be moved arbitrarily. If they are chosen to be stationary, the scheme is equivalent to an ordinary Eulerian method with second order accuracy. If they instead move with the velocity of the local flow, one obtains a Lagrangian formulation of continuum hydrodynamics that does not suffer from the mesh distortion limitations inherent in other mesh-based Lagrangian schemes. In this mode, our new method is fully Galilean-invariant, unlike ordinary Eulerian codes, a property that is of significant importance for cosmological simulations where highly supersonic bulk flows are common. In addition, the new scheme can adjust its spatial resolution automatically and continuously, and hence inherits the principal advantage of SPH for simulations of cosmological structure growth. The high accuracy of Eulerian methods in the treatment of shocks is also retained, while the treatment of contact discontinuities improves.
The Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) was established in 2010 by the physicist and SAP co-founder Klaus Tschira (1940-2015) and the Klaus Tschira Foundation as a private, non-profit research institute. HITS conducts basic research in the natural sciences, mathematics and computer science, with a focus on the processing, structuring, and analyzing of large amounts of complex data and the development of computational methods and software. The research fields range from molecular biology to astrophysics. The shareholders of HITS are the HITS-Stiftung, which is a subsidiary of the Klaus Tschira Foundation, Heidelberg University and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). HITS also cooperates with other universities and research institutes and with industrial partners. The base funding of HITS is provided by the HITS Stiftung with funds received from the Klaus Tschira Foundation. The primary external funding agencies are the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the German Research Foundation (DFG), and the European Union.